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An operating system is a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources.

It hosts several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. Users and application programs access the services offered by the operating systems, by means of system calls and application programming interfaces. Users interact with a computer operating system through Command Line Interfaces (CLIs) or Graphical User Interfaces known as GUIs.

In short, an operating system enables user interaction with computer systems by acting as an interface between users or application programs and the computer hardware. And no software can be run on the computer without the operating system.

    Functions of Operating System
    Following are some of important functions of an operating System.
  1. Memory Management
  2. Processor Management
  3. Device Management
  4. File Management
  5. Security
  6. Control over system performance
  7. Job accounting
  8. Error detecting aids
  9. Coordination between other software and users

Some of the common operating systems are:-

  1. Microsoft Windows
  2. Mac OS X
  3. Linux.

  1. Microsoft Windows
    Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems most commonly used on personal computers. It is the most common family of operating systems for the personal computer.

      Examples of Microsoft Windows
    1. Windows 10
    2. Windows 8
    3. Windows 7
    4. Windows xp
    5. Windows vista

  2. Mac OS X
    Mac OS X (Macintosh) is a line of partially proprietary graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc..
    Mac OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT.

      Examples of Mac OS X
    1. 4.1 Mac OS X Public Beta
    2. 4.2 Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah
    3. 4.3 Mac OS X 10.1 Puma
    4. 4.4 Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar
    5. 4.5 Mac OS X 10.3 Panther
    6. 4.6 Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger
    7. 4.7 Mac OS X 10.5 Leopad
    8. 4.8 Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard

  3. Linux and GNU
    The Linux kernel is an operating system kernel used by the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems. It is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software.

      Examples of Linux Operating system
    1. Ubuntu
    2. Fedora
    3. Linux Mint
    4. OpenSUSE
    5. PCLinuxOS
    6. Debian
    7. Mandriva
    8. Sabayon/Gentoo

      Examples of GNU Operating System
    1. gNewSense : Full free software GNU/Linux distribution
    2. Dragoba : A LIBRE, reliable, UNIX like GNU/Linux distribution
    3. BLAG and GNU : Le brixton linux action group
    4. Trisquel : Run free
    5. GuixSD : An advanced distribution of the GNU operating system
    6. Parabola : A fully free, simple and lightweight operating system

    Operating System Categories
  1. Batch operating system
  2. Time-sharing operating system
  3. Real time operating system
  4. Multiprogramming operating system
  5. Parallel operating system
  6. Distributed operating system
  7. Personal computer operating system
    Operating system services
  1. Program execution
  2. I/O operation
  3. Fie system manipulation
  4. Communication
    1. It can be implemented by
    2. Shared memory
    3. Message passing