COMPUTER LECTURES

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

What does a computer mean?
A computer is an electronic machine capable of accepting data, processing data arithmetically and logically, producing output from the processing, and storing the results for future use.

What are differences between data and information
Data : Are raw facts that are not yet processed. Include numbers , letters and symbols etc.

Information : This is the end product of data processing stages which have been transformed and have clear meaning to the user.

What are the differences between Hardaware and Software?
Hardware and software are computer related terms that categorize different types of computer related paraphernalia.

Hardware : It includes every computer related object that you can physically touch and handle like disks, screens, keyboards, printers, chips, wires, central processing unit, floppies, USB ports, pen drives etc.

Software : It includes every computer related program that you cannot feel with the physical senses for example, system operating system, an anti-virus program, the web browser, the memory, all data, reports etc

How do hardware and software relate each other?
Hardaware and software are mutually dependent on each other. Both of them must work together to make a computer produce as useful output.
Hardaware without set of programs (software) to operate upon can not be utilized and is useless and Software can not be utilized without supporting hardware.
Both hardware and software to get a particular job done on the computer, relevant software should be loaded into the hardware.
Hardware is an one-time expensive while software development is very expensive and is continuing expense.
Different software applications can be loaded on a hardware to run different jobs.
A software acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.
If hardware is the heart of a computer system, then software is its soul. Both are complimentary to each other.

What Does a computer do?
Computer performs four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle.
Input
Process
Output
Storage

Why is a computer so powerful?
The ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed.
Reliability (low failure rate).
Accuracy.
Ability to store huge amounts of data and information.
Ability to communicate with other computers.

What are the primary components of a computer ?
Input devices.
Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit).
Memory.
Output devices.
Storage devices.

How Computer Memory Is Measured ?
The computer memory is measured by :-

A character : The character is made of bits.

Bit: All computers work on a binary numbering system, i.e. they process data in one's or zero's. This 1 or 0 level of storage is called a bit. Byte: A byte consists of eight bits.

Kilobyte: A kilobyte (KB) consists of 1024 bytes.

Megabyte: A megabyte (MB) consists of 1024 kilobytes.

Gigabyte: A gigabyte (GB) consists of 1024 megabytes

What are factors to consider when buying a new computer?
Hardware considerations
Processor speed
Memory capacity
Warranty: is agreement between buyer and seller of computer
Cost
Upgradeability and compatibility: due to new levels of technology
Portability
User needs: ie data it can process
Storage capacity

Software considerations
User needs
User friendliness
Cost
Reliability security
Compatibility

How do you care your computer?
Never move the computer when it is switched on
Never obstruct the ventilation holes in the monitor or computer's case
Never eat or drink near the computer
Never store floppy disks near magnetic field, which are created by monitors, speakers, microwave and the electrical devices
Always keep your computer clean, dry, cool and dust free space
Always keep your computer away from radiators and hot lamps

How do you care a computer's monitor?
Monitor surface should be clean using a suitable cleaning agent and cloth or wipe